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初四英語 被動語態專練.doc

'初四英語 被動語態專練.doc'
?被 動 語 態 一、被動語態概述  語態是動詞的一種形式,用以說明主語與謂語動詞之間的關系。英語的語態共有兩種:主動語態和被動語態。主動語態表示主語是動作的執行者,被動語態表示主語是動作的承受者。被動語態是動詞的一種特殊形式,一般說來,只有需要動作對象的及物動詞才有被動語態。漢語往往用"被"、"受"、"給"等詞來表示被動意義。  如: He opened the door.他打開了這扇門。(主動語態) The door was opened.這扇門被打開了。(被動語態) 二、被動語態的構成  被動語態由"助動詞be+及物動詞的過去分詞"構成。被動語態的時態變化只改變be的形式,過去分詞部分不變。疑問式和否定式的變化也如此。  1、被動語態的時態較常見的八種,現以動詞clean為例列表說明: 2、被動語態的句式變化: 以一般現在時和動詞invite為例,列表說明被動語態的句式變化: 3、含有情態動詞的被動語態 情態動詞的被動語態結構為:情態動詞+be+過去分詞;其時態及句型的變化僅由情態動詞完成,"be+過去分詞"部分不變。如:  Tables can be made of stone.桌子可由石頭制造?!ables could be made of stone at that time.那時桌子可由石頭制造。(一般過去時) Can tables be made of stone? 桌子能用石頭制造嗎?(疑問句) 三、被動語態的用法:  1、不知道或沒有必要指出誰是動作的執行者時?!he bridge was built last year.這座橋是去年建造的?!e was elected chairman.他被選為主席。  2、 當更加強調動作的承受者時。此時動作的執行者由by引導置于謂語動詞之后,不需要時可以省略?!he room hasn't been cleaned yet.房間還沒有打掃?!he tiger was killed by him.老虎被他殺死了。  3、當動作的執行者不是人時,多用被動語態。如: The window was blown by wind.窗戶被風吹開了?!he whole village has been washed away by the flood.整個村莊都被洪水沖走了。  4、表示客觀的說明常用"It is + 過去分詞."句型?!t is said that Lucy has gone abroad.據說露茜已經出國了?!t is believed that he is a spy. (=He is believed to be a spy.)大家相信他是個間諜?!∑渌R姷?It is + 過去分詞+ that"句型還有 It is reported that…據報道 It is said that…據說 It is believed that…大家相信 It is suggested that…有人建議四、主動語態變為被動語態 轉換圖示: 1、主動語態變為被動語態的步驟: ?。?)將主動句的賓語變為主語:  注意:如果主動句的賓語是代詞,需將其由賓格變為主格。如: Tom killed him. → He was killed by Tom. ?。?)將動詞改為"be+過去分詞"?!∽⒁猓? They held a meeting yesterday. → A meeting was held by them yesterday. 他們昨天開會了。 ?。?)將主動語態的主語改為be…放在謂語動詞后?!∽⒁猓喝绻髡Z是代詞,則應由主格變為賓格?!e sang a song. → A song was sung by him.    2、主動語態變為被動語態的注意事項:?。?)主動句中的主語如果是people, we, you, they, somebody等含糊地表示"人們"、"大家"的單詞,變為主動句時,通常刪去"by…",但原主語被強調者除外。如: They set up this hospital in 1975. → This hospital was set up in 1975. 這所醫院建于1975年?!nly he can finish the job. → 只有他能完成這項工作?!he job can be finished only by him.這項工作只能由他來完成。 ?。?)含有雙賓語,即直接賓語和間接賓語的句子,每個賓語都可變為被動語態的主語,即其被動語態有兩種形式。但多以間接賓語作主語?!ack told us the truth.杰克告訴了我們真相?!e were told the truth by Jack. The truth was told (to) us by Jack.五、動詞的主動形式表示被動之意 以主動形式表示被動之意的動詞多為連系動詞,如:look, feel, smell等。下列動詞沒有被動式:happen, cost,take,have An accident was happened yesterday.(×)昨天發生了一起事故?!n accident happened yesterday.( ) The flower smells sweet.這花聞起來很香?!he watch looks good.這表看起來很好?!his book sells well.這本書暢銷。六、各種時態的被動語態舉例(以動詞do為例)  1.一般現在時(am/ is/ are +done) English is spoken by lots of people in the world. 世界上的許多人都說英語?!lass meeting is held every Thursday. 每周四都舉行班會?!he classroom is cleaned by the students every day. 學生們每天都打掃教室。  2.一般過去時(was/ were +done) The cup was broken by the boy. 杯子被那個男孩打碎了?!e was saved at last. 他最終獲救了?!y bike was stolen. 我的自行車被偷了。  3.一般將來時與過去將來時(will/ shall be +done; would/should be +done) A speech will be given this afternoon. 今天下午有一個演講?! new road will be built next year. 明年要修一條新馬路?! thought thousands of people would。省略部分。wn B. showed C. have shown D. was showing 15. The war______ in 1941.A. broke out      B. had been broken outC. was broken out D. had broken out 16. When water______ , it will be changed into vapour.A. is heated B. heating C. has heated D. heats 17. We can't enter the room because its door______ .A. locked B. locks C. is locked D. is locking 18. They ______day and night.A. are made work     B. are made to workC. made to be worked D. are making to work 19. Chang'an Road is ______of people.A. filled B. fill C. full D. fulled 20. Man-made satellites ______into space by many countries.A. was sent up       B. is sent upC. have been sent up D. has been sent up 21. This English song _____ often _____ by the children.A. is, singing B. is, sung C. will, sing D. was, sung 22.The windows of our house _____once a week.A. must clean B. have cleaned C. is cleaned D. are cleaned 23. When ______ the People's Republic of China_____ ?A. was, found B. was, founded C. did, found D. does, found 24. Mary's radio ______ by my brother just now.A. will be mended B. has mended C. was mended D. mended 25. Your exercise books _____ after class.A. will hand in B. must hand in C. handed in D. must be handed in 26. Some trees may ______ at other times of the year.A. be planted B. plant C. are planted D. will be planted 27. The sun _____ at night as usual.A. can be seen B. can't see C. can't be seen D. doesn't see 28. A new English play _____ there next week.A. will put on B. will be put on C. is going to put on D. will be putted on 29. A strange thing _____ in our school yesterday.A. was happened B. has been happened C. happened D. was going to happen 30. The glass ______ . It _____ by little Tom this morning.A. broke, is broken  B. is broken, was brokenC. was broken, broke D. has been broken, brokenⅡ把下列句子改為被動語態 1. I saw the boy run yesterday. 2. He told me that he would come back soon. 3. You can find a lot of differences between the two languages. 4. Do you water your flowers every day? 5. The wind blew down the big tree last night. 6. I think that he is right. 7. He had not thrown the bad food. 8. Mother was not mending the trousers. 9. They would not take him to Beijing. 10. Nobody knew me in this town at that time.參考答案Ⅰ單項選擇 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. C6. B 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. A11. A 12. C 13. D 14. A 15. A16. A 17. C 18. B 19. C 20. C21.B 22. D 23.B 24. C 25.D26. A 27. C 28. B 29. C 30. B Ⅱ、把下列句子改為被動語態 1. The boy was seen to run by me yesterday. 2. I was told that he would come back soon. 3. A lot of differences can be found by you between the two languages. 4. Are your flowers watered every day? 5. The big tree was blown down last night. 6. It is thought that he is right. 7. The bad food had not been thrown. 8. The trousers were not being mended by my mother. 9. He would not be taken to Beijing. 10. I was known by nobody in this town at that time.
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初四 語態 英語 被動
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