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Unit 1 – Section Al Language Focus – Words in Use 1. Given the chance to show his ability, he regained (confidence) and began to succeed in school.2. It is so difficult to (explore) the bottom of the ocean because some parts are very deep.3. It was about 30 seconds before Alex (emerged) from the water; we were quite scared.4. We often (assume) that when other people do the same things as we do, they do them for the same reasons; but this assumption is not always reasonable.5. There is widespread concern that the rising unemployment may (pose) a threat to social stability.6. After a(n) (comprehensive) physical exam, my doctor said I was in good condition except that my blood pressure was a little high.7. It is well known that China is a country with rich natural (resources) and a very big population.8. Some people believe that the earth can (yield) enough food to support at least twice its present population.9. Sam (inherited) the gift of imagination from his family, but he lacked the driving power to take action.10. A bee that has found honey is able to (transmit) to other bees the information they need in order to collect the honey.l Word Building1. cover2. easy3. load4. apply5. resist6. account7. assistant8. simple9. note10. quality11. class1. uncover2. uneasy3. unload4. applicant5. resistant6. accountant7. assist8. simplify9. notify10. qualify11. classify1. Despite being (classified) as a meat-eater, the panda has a diet that is overwhelmingly vegetarian.2. They have developed computerized systems which will greatly (assist) all library users so that they will not need the help of others.3. Changes have been made to the construction requirements in this city in order to make the buildings and highways more (resistant) to earthquakes.4. After a two-month inquiry, the police have (uncovered) the three men's intention to rob a bank and have arrested them.5. Consumers say they are (uneasy) about using their credit cards over the Internet because they are afraid of Interent fraud.6. A college degree and some working experience should (qualify) you for the job advertised in the newspaper.7. The British ship arrived at the port this morning and is (unloading) its contents in the harbor now.8. As a human resources manager, I see many job (applicants) who are technically skilled, but have bad attitudes.9. The teacher (simplified) his instructions so that the small children could understand him better.10. My major was literature. However, now I'm working in a firm as a(n) (accountant) , dealing with numbers every day.11. The committee's decision will be (notified) to all employees next week.l Banked ClozeUniversity students come from different parts of the country with various purposes. However, a closer look at their reasons for studying at the university will enable us to (1) (classify) them roughly into three groups: those who have a(n) (2) (passion) for learning, those who wish to (3) (attain) a bright future, and those who learn with no definite purpose.Firstly, there are many students who learn simply because they (4) (pursue) their goal of learning. Some read a wealth of British and American novels because they are keenly interested in literature. Others sit in front of the computer screen, working on a new program, (5) (virtually) day and night, because they find some computer programs (6) (fascinating), and they dream of becoming a "Bill Gates" one day.Secondly, there are students who work hard mainly for a better and more (7) (prosperous) future. It seems that the majority of students fall into this group. After admission to the university, they read books after books to (8) (acquire) knowledge from all of the resources which are (9) (available) to them, and finally, to succeed in the future job market.Thirdly, there are still some students who learn without a clear goal. They take courses, finish homework, enjoy life on campus, but don't want to (10) (sample) anything new or challenging. They have no idea what they will be doing after college. And they may end up with nothing in their lives.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. My family (got by) on my father's unemployment benefit after he lost his job.2. Many subway riders read books or listen to music in order to (make the most of) their time on the way to work.3. In order to make sure he would be able to attend the meeting, I called him up two weeks (in advance) .4. Experts say our company is amazing in that sales have been increasing steadily (over time) .5. In order to (reap the benefits of) the physical exercise, you have to exercise regularly, and for at least half an hour each time.6. They all tried to talk (all at once) , but I couldn't hear anything they said.7. Yellow flowers in the field always (1) (remind) me (2) (of) my childhood in the countryside.8. We have been practicing for so long and so hard that our team should (stand a chance of) winning the game.9. Research on genes will (open the door to) exciting new medical treatments.10. Every one of you has made a contribution and I (take pleasure in) acknowledging what each of you has done to make this academic convention such a success.l Translation? 英譯漢Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals (基礎) of modern Western philosophy. He is a mysterious figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his most famous student Plato. Socrates has become well known for his contribution to the field of ethics. His method of teaching, known as the Socratic Method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions. He also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology (認識論) and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for Western philosophy that followed. Socrates was the most colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. His fame was widespread in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he constructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect (宗派).蘇格拉底是古希臘哲學家,被譽為現代西方哲學的奠基人。他是一個謎一般的人物,人們主要通過后期的一些古典作家的敘述,尤其是他最著名的學生柏拉圖的作品去了解他。蘇格拉底以他對倫理學的貢獻而聞名。他的教學法亦稱為蘇格拉底法,即通過提問和回答來激發批判性思維以及闡述觀點。該方法在各種討論中仍被普遍使用。他還在認識論和邏輯領域作出了重大而深遠的貢獻。他的思想和方法所帶來的影響一直是后來的西方哲學的堅實基礎。蘇格拉底是古代哲學史上最豐富多彩的人物。他在他那個時代已威名遠揚。雖然他未曾建立什么哲學體系,未曾設立什么學派,也未曾創立什么宗派,但他的名字很快就變得家喻戶曉了。? 漢譯英孔子是中國歷史上著名的思想家、教育家,是儒家學派(Confucianism)的創始人,被尊稱為古代的"圣人"(sage)。他的言論和生平活動記錄在《論語》(The Analects)一書中?!墩撜Z》是中國古代文化的經典著作,對后來歷代的思想家、文學家、政治家產生了很大影響。不研究《論語》,就不能真正把握中國幾千年的傳統文化??鬃拥暮芏嗨枷?,尤其是其教育思想,對中國社會產生了深遠的影響。在21世紀的今天,孔子的學說不僅受到中國人的重視,而且也越來越受到整個國際社會的重視。Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient "sage". His words and life story were recorded in The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Analects has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years' traditional Chinese culture. Much of Confucius' thought, especially his thought on education, has had a profound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian thought not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community.Unit 1 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. By decreasing the tax rate, the government can (stimulate) or encourage consumer spending, business transactions (交易) and investments.2. Our bodies have greater (potential) than most of us realize, and we can benefit by remembering this.3. One important feature of team sports is that they can (cultivate) people's team spirit and sense of collective honor.4. Human behavior is mostly a product of learning, while animal behavior depends mainly upon (instinct) .5. She has been saving money in the past two years, so she is (confident) that in the coming summer she will be able to afford a journey abroad.6. The doctor (assured) him that his condition was not serious and he would recover soon after a minor operation.7. Generally, children display great (curiosity) about every new thing they see, and they want to find out more about it.8. He was proud of being chosen to (participate) in the game, and he promised that he would try as hard as possible.9. Though it has met with considerable enthusiasm, there has been resistance from some parents to this new (approach) to teaching and learning.10. The room only had a(n) (capacity) for 100 people. However, over 200 enthusiastic students came to listen to the lecture.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. Endless wars have turned this once wealthy country (into) one of the poorest nations in the world.2. If you feel (like) staying at home, we could watch one of your favorite movie DVDs.3. She was a confident and outgoing girl, but the presence of the president reduced her (to) silence.4. I'd like to sign (up) for volunteer (志愿的) work with an environmental organization. I hear it is a great way to connect with the community.5. I know he is annoying and unfriendly, but you shouldn't let him get (to) you.6. The government is launching a new program which is aimed at opening (up) new employment opportunities.7. Sharon was nowhere to be found. Maybe she had gone (off) to the beach with Tony.8. They develop the specialized skills, knowledge, and positive attitudes needed to participate (in) sports and physical activities.l Sentence structure1. (正是山姆認為) that the greatest achievement of last century was the landing of mankind on the moon.Reference: It is Sam that/who thinks2. (正是在本科學習期間) I found out what my passion was.Reference: It was during my undergraduate studies that3. (正是孩子的好奇心和創造力) causes many educators to believe that teaching should stimulate children's interest in learning.Reference: It is the curiosity and creativity of children that Unit 2 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. He has a special feeling for the brilliant birds, and each spring he eagerly (awaits) their return.2. Thanks to the (efficiency) of air transport, everyone is free to go anywhere at any time.3. John believes that the (donation) of food to the hungry is more helpful than giving money.4. Mary was a careful speaker; every word seemed to have been (polished) before it was allowed to escape through her lips.5. When she heard it was snowing in the city they were going to, she (stuffed) two more sweaters into her bag.6. During our stay in Europe we visited many places of (historical) interest, including several castles.7. The wedding ceremony of my sister was a very (emotional) experience for our family.8. He was (embarrassed) when he discovered that he didn't have enough money to pay for the red wine he had ordered.9. The local government is pressed to find new places to (dump) waste.10. The new system designed to (curb) harmful emissions (排放物) from factories will be put into use soon.l Word Building1. employ2. computer3. interpreter4. atom5. artist6. economy7. history8. electronic9. envy10. continue11. famous12. various1. employer2. compute3. interpret4. atomic5. artistic6. economic7. historic8. electron9. envious10. continuous11. fame12. vary1. Lack of eye contact might be (interpreted) as lack of attention in America, while eye contact might be considered rude in Japan.2. When applying for a job, make sure you emphasize the skills and knowledge you have that the (employer) will find important to the job.3. Many of our students are beginners who have never done painting before and are looking to develop their (artistic) interests.4. It is surprising that you don't know about such a(n) (historic) event. It marked the beginning of a new period for our nation.5. They hoped to create a computer which could (compute) at 10 times the speed of computers on the market.6. Education is a(n) (continuous) learning process that never ends. A teacher has the responsibility of making students think for themselves by giving effective guidance.7. On the one hand, we should make efforts to improve the economy; on the other hand, we must keep a balance between (economic) development and environmental protection.8. Some successful people managed to gain (fame) and fortune even though they dropped out of school.9. A(n) (electron) is a very small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge, found in all atoms.10. The (atomic) bombs, also known as nuclear bombs, would cause disasters if they were used in wars.11. I never felt anxious or (envious) when somebody else got a higher position or made a lot of money.12. The effects of this medicine will (vary) according to a person's health, weight, and sex.l Banked ClozeParents and teenagers have different or even opposite things to worry about. For example, while a mother might have a hard time understanding why her teenagers' room is always a(n) (1) (embarrassment) of dirty stuff, the teenagers are more worried about their next exams and may think it is (2) (ridiculous) for their mother to insist on keeping a clean room. It is therefore important for you to (3) (appreciate) the differences and learn to communicate with your teenagers properly. (4) (Otherwise), your teenagers may say nothing and shut you out of their personal lives. Their refusal to talk with you may even create (5) (emotional) stress in your life.Learning effective ways to communicate can (6) (reverse) the situation of a difficult relationship, (7) (reduce) the stress of your life, and lead to a friendly relationship with your teenagers. First, you should learn to discuss serious problems in daily conversations. So, important topics, such as driving a vehicle and building a(n) (8) (romantic) relationship, could be dealt with through daily conversations.Second, learn to be an active listener. Many parents are so (9) (overwhelmed) with their work that they could hardly take some time for their (10) (beloved) children. Spend your time listening carefully to what your children like to talk about, and make sure your children feel they are being taken seriously. This will increase the chances of good communication.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. After 10 years of full-time training, she has finally (made it) as a professional dancer.2. (After all) , what is the point in taking part in the competitive event if the result is only to prove how incompetent you are?3. Redecorating the house is a challenging task. It's necessary to (strip off) the wallpaper first.4. I never really had any problems with change. On the contrary, I welcome change (with open arms) .5. A lot of what we (throw away) is made from raw materials which are not renewable.6. Megan and John realized that their house was too messy for a new baby, so they decided to (straighten up) their house before the baby was born.7. Jennifer couldn't (keep back) her tears when she saw the sick children at a new blood cancer center in Virginia.8. We want to give all children a world (free of/from) violence.l Translation? 英譯漢Christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on December 25 by millions of people around the world. It commemorates (紀念) the birth of Jesus Christ. The festival dated from as early as 336 AD. Gradually it evolved into a religious as well as secular (非宗教的) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians. Today Christmas is observed as an important festival and public holiday around the world. Christmas customs differ in different countries. Popular modern customs of the holiday include an exchange of Christmas cards and gifts, Christmas singing, church attendance, the display of various Christmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal preparation. To small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise. Legend (傳說) has it that Santa Claus will enter each house through the chimney and bring gifts to well-behaved children on Christmas Eve. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival heighten economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has also become a significant event and a key sales period for businesses.圣誕節是一個被廣泛慶祝的文化節日,全世界有許許多多的人在1 2月2 5日慶祝這一節日。它是為了紀念耶穌基督的誕辰。該節日最早可追溯到公元3 3 6年。漸漸地,這一節日演變為一個既是宗教又是非宗教的節日,越來越多的非基督徒也慶祝圣誕節。如今,圣誕節在全球被作為一個重大的節日和公共假日來慶祝。不同國家的圣誕節風俗也各不相同?,F代流行的圣誕節風俗包括交換圣誕賀卡和圣誕禮物、唱圣誕歌曲、參加教堂活動、擺放各種圣誕裝飾品和圣誕樹、舉行家庭聚會以及準備一頓特別的大餐。對小孩子們來說,這個節日充滿了幻想和驚喜。據傳說,圣誕老人會在圣誕夜從煙囪進入每戶人家,給乖巧聽話的孩子帶來禮物。由于圣誕節送禮物以及許多其他方面推動了基督徒和非基督徒的經濟活動,圣誕節也因此成為商家的一個重大活動和主要銷售季。? 漢譯英每 年 農 歷(Chinese lunar calendar)八 月 十 五 是我 國 的 傳 統 節 日 —— 中 秋 節(the Mid-Autumn Festival)。這時是一年秋季的中期,所以被稱為中秋。中秋節的一項重要活動是賞月。夜晚,人們賞明月、吃月餅,共慶中秋佳節。中秋節也是家庭團圓的時刻,遠在他鄉的游子,會借此寄托自己對故鄉和親人的思念之情。中秋節的習俗很多,都寄托著人們對美好生活的熱愛和向往。自2008年起,中秋節成為中國的法定節假日。According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a traditional Chinese festival — the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middle of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autumn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather together to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival. There are many customs to celebrate the festival, all expressing people's love and hope for a happy life. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national holiday in China.Unit 2 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. As a tall girl, I feel very uncomfortable and (awkward) in high heels.2. Although we were supposed to finish the project this month, it looks like the work will (stretch) well into the next month.3. It is believed that the driver had lost control over his car while he was (overtaking) and running into another car.4. After the quarrel, things became very (delicate) between me and my boss, and as a result I had to give up my job.5. The scientist did not (anticipate) that his research result would be put to an entirely different use.6. With five days before the opening of the College Student Arts Festival, there is a(n) (immense) amount of work to be done.7. Hans is a warm-hearted person. When needed, he would show no (reluctance) to help others.8. Some older people tend to be quite conservative and a bit (suspicious) of any supposed advances.9. During the period of adjustment (適應), the international student tends to (complain) about everything in the new environment.10. Her anger (melted) away when she read his letter of apology.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. I like this market most, because all the fruits and vegetables, shaded by umbrellas, are laid (out) so nicely.2. He said, politely and kindly, "If you don't care (for) the film, perhaps you'd like to read the book."3. He seldom spoke, and he was never impatient (with) her; he was always a kind and friendly father.4. The sharp surge (in/of) house price makes it difficult for young people to buy houses, especially in big cities.5. Though very busy with his work, he does mountain climbing once (in) a while with his friends.6. This area witnessed a leap in economic growth in the past decade, but now the growth is slowing (down) .7. Since you don't know much about this city, let me accompany you (to) your hotel in case you lose your way.8. Leaving behind their families when getting (aboard) the plane departing for America is their most challenging experience.l Sentence structure1. All of Justin's pain disappeared. (他的腿也不痛了).Reference: So did the ache in his legs2. His father doesn't have great hope for him now. (他的母親也一樣).Reference: Nor does his mother3. CNN then reported the story and (其他電視新聞節目和各大報紙也都報道了).Reference: so did other television news programs and major newspapers Unit 3 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. To make our companies (competitive) in the market, we have to be more creative and productive.2. People are beginning to realize that to (transform) nature at will is the biggest mistake that man has ever made.3. It is difficult to conclude what a(n) (typical) student does in his spare time because every student has different interests.4. A month ago I wrote to the store complaining about its bad service, but I haven't gotten a(n) (response) yet.5. Some of your suggestions have been (adopted) , but others have been turned down as they are not workable.6. All of a sudden, he lost his interest in engineering, and (focused) his attention on learning a foreign language.7. If a company decreases health benefits for its employees, they should increase salaries to (compensate) the workers.8. I failed to pass the exam although I had worked very hard. I should (analyze) the causes of my failure.9. When you do yoga, try to (regulate) your breathing. Don't breathe too fast and make sure you breathe only through your nose.10. It was difficult to (estimate) how many people had been wounded in the earthquake.l Word Building1. scene2. machine3. detective4. compare5. explode6. mass7. represent8. modern9. character10. special11. computer12. summary1. scenery2. machinery3. detect4. comparative5. explosive6. massive7. representative8. modernize9. characterize10. specialize11. computerize12. summarize1. New Zealand is famous for its clean beaches, friendly people and magnificent (scenery) .2. The company decided after a board meeting that the old (machinery) in the factories be done away with.3. The key to an effective presentation is to state your points clearly and (summarize) each of your points at the end of your presentation.4. My favorite store is the one that (specializes) in hand-made chocolates and lets you sample them.5. It is sad that when he is alone, he always drinks a(n) (massive) amount of alcohol to get himself drunk.6. To our delight, this new smoke alarm system can effectively (detect) very weak signals.7. We have sent our union (representative/representatives) to look into the case and see who is responsible.8. James is famous for skillfully using white and black colors; however, bright colors (characterize) his early paintings.9. I made a(n) (comparative) analysis between the two theories to show their similarities and differences.10. The project is an important step toward a national health service, and the authorities (當局) are trying hard to (modernize) the exercise facilities.11. In recent years, the small city has taken on a new look because of its (explosive) development.12. A(n) (computerized) library system is one that stores all the records of the library on computer.l Banked ClozeThere have been increased demands for higher education to provide students with better courses and more opportunities. To deal with this (1) (complex) issue, colleges and universities are turning to the Internet for quick (2) (access) to its rich educational resources. Now the Internet has been accepted as the (3) (preferred) technology to many other methods in colleges and universities. Many teachers now routinely (4) (post) their teaching materials online. A growing number of schools offer at least some (5) (undergraduate) courses over the Internet. There are two different models of making use of the Internet for higher education. The first model (6) (seeks) to improve existing courses by using the Internet. This model provides high-speed Internet (7) (connectivity) to all students, faculty, and staff. While this model uses the Internet, it doesn't (8) (require) many changes, and it keeps most existing institutional structures unchanged. A different, more revolutionary model regards the Internet as (9) (indispensable) to an important change in higher education, for it is believed that the Internet can (10) (transform) teacher-centered instruction into student-centered learning. This, as a result, will bring about basic change to our university education.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. I (fired off) a letter of complaint to the manager of the store as soon as I found they had sold me a pair of mismatched shoes.2. People browse the Internet, read newspapers and watch TV to (keep up with) what is happening in the world.3. The university has (set up) another large laboratory for students to design more complicated robots.4. I find it very difficult to (account for) the fact that two of our best students failed the exam.5. In the current economy, with unemployment high and competition for jobs fierce, your resume needs to (stand out) for all the right reasons.6. She is getting popular since she appeared in a TV interview last month. Her new movie will no doubt (add to) her growing fame.7. The developed countries should (take the lead) in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (排放) and provide support for the developing nations to follow.8. If your spoken English is not very good, then you may be (at a disadvantage) when you are looking for a job.9. Their success was due (in large part) to their well-conceived (周密策劃的) plan.10. He has been so occupied with his work these days that he barely has time to (visit with) his friends.l Translation? 英譯漢The London Underground is a rapid transit (交通運輸系統) system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London. The underground system is also known as the Tube, due to the characteristic shape of the subway tunnels. It all started in the mid-1800s. The Tube was the world's first underground train system, with the first section opening in 1863. Since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of which is underground. It is the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations. As an affordable and easy way to get around London, the Tube remains the first choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting the city on holidays. The Tube has been an international icon for London. The London Underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑).倫敦地鐵是英國的一個快速交通運輸系統,服務于大倫敦的大部分地區。地鐵系統因其地鐵隧道的典型形狀也被稱為地下管道。倫敦地鐵始建于19 世紀中期,是世界上最早的地下鐵路系統。它的第一段地鐵于1863 年開始運營。自此,倫敦地鐵不斷延伸,發展成為一個包括12條線路、275個車站、鐵軌總長超過250 英里的地鐵杰作,其中有45%在地下運行。就路線長度而言,它是世界上第四大地鐵系統,也是車站數量最多的地鐵系統之一。作為一個走遍倫敦的經濟便捷的途徑,倫敦地鐵一向是每天數百萬通勤者以及在節假日游歷倫敦的游客的首選。倫敦地鐵已成為倫敦的一個國際標志。2013 年倫敦舉辦了各種各樣的活動,慶祝地鐵運營150 周年,紀念這一里程碑。? 漢譯英中國航天業開創于1956年。幾十年來,中國航天事業創造了一個又一個奇跡。1970年,中國成功發射了第一顆人造地球衛星,成為世界上第五個獨立自主研制和發射人造地球衛星的國家。1992年,中國開始實施載人航天飛行工程(manned spaceflight program)。2003年,中國成功發射了"神舟五號"載人飛船,使中國成為第三個發射載人飛船的國家。2007年發射了"嫦娥一號",即第一顆繞月球飛行(lunar-orbiting)的人造衛星。2013年,第五艘載人飛船"神舟十號"發射成功,為中國空間站的建設打下了基礎。China's space industry was launched in 1956. Over the past decades, China's space industry has created one miracle after another. In 1970 China launched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking China the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth satellites. In 1992 China began to carry out the manned spaceflight program. In 2003 China launched Shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. The successful launch made China the third country to launch manned spaceships. In 2007 Chang'e-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to space. In 2013 Shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched successfully, laying the foundation for building the Chinese Space Station.Unit 3 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. While professors are talking about economic theories, businesspeople are more (concerned) about profits.2. The police could not prove he had been involved in the crime, so they had to (release) him.3. Keeping a(n) (positive) attitude and remaining confident in your ability to get the job is a way to impress any hiring manager.4. If the Internet (ceased) to function, the resulting losses could be measured in tens of billions rather than millions of dollars.5. WTO entry will (enable) a country to learn from the world's best brains and participate directly in international competition at home.6. There has been a sharp (decline) in profits this year, so some companies have dismissed many employees.7. It is said that the meeting, which is (scheduled) to be held this Friday, will be put off till next month.8. Discipline is (essential) to anyone who wants to be successful; we cannot hope to make any progress if we cannot work in an organized way.9. I don't object to your trying to make some pocket money while you are at university, but don't (neglect) your studies.10. We have recently been developing a device which we believe will (arouse) great interest among young people.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. The car company is making use (of) the mass media to popularize its new model scheduled to be available to the public early next year.2. Lack of knowledge of the differences between the two cultures may give rise (to) many misunderstandings.3. He never expected that his best friend would charge him (with) cheating in the final exam.4. There is a wealth (of) information available online about the research we are undertaking.5. Exercise is necessary. Regular exercise can make us healthy and keep us (from) getting sick or overweight.6. When all the lights had been left far behind him, there was nothing (but) darkness on either side of the road.7. Some people attributed the decline in the number of cinema audience (to) the popularity of the television and the Internet.8. To me, it's almost impossible to concentrate on work and care (for) a young child at the same time.l Sentence structure1. (為了給面試官留下一個好印象), he planned to get a new haircut and buy a new suit.Reference: To make a good impression on the interviewer2. (為了大幅度提高人民的生活水平), we should attach great importance to the development of the economy.Reference: To greatly improve people's living standards3. The customs officers examine people who want to cross the bridge (為了防止任何人攜帶槍支或毒品).Reference: to prevent anyone from carrying guns or drugs Unit 4 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. Fortunately, the accident didn't (involve) many people, for there was little traffic at that hour.2. She (fulfilled) her ambition of becoming a fashion designer after years of hard work.3. They kept on trying their best to develop their business, but in such (intense) market competition, they had no idea if success would come along one day.4. As music plays an important role in our life, many music teachers and educators (advocate) taking up a musical instrument at a young age.5. This rule should be entirely clear in the minds of everyone and should not be misunderstood under any (circumstances) .6. My daughter was shy; she was afraid to ask questions, (respond) to questions in class, or talk with other children.7. I got from him only a letter, which was put on my office desk; (subsequent) to the receipt of this letter I have never heard from him.8. The duties to provide services for children in need are not (confined) to the local social services department.9. We pray that all nations be (reconciled) and that all people around the world live in peace.10. He suggested a small but (distinct) improvement on our former plan; I really appreciate it.l Word Building1. agree2. apply3. desire4. sustain5. compare6. accept7. attend8. assist9. entertainment10. assignment11. engage1. agreeable / agreement2. applicable3. desirable4. sustainable5. comparable6. acceptance7. attendance8. assistance9. entertain10. assign11. engagement1. If you have difficulty finding a particular book, please ask one of the librarians for (assistance) .2. My recent experience is so different from your experience several decades ago that they are not (comparable) .3. Few people knew that the famous writer was largely self-taught through broad reading and (attendance) at public lectures.4. They are planning to establish a new department which bases its teaching on the idea of direct (engagement) with students.5. His proposal sounds attractive, but unfortunately it is not (applicable) to the management problems of a small company.6. The young engineer has been working hard to fulfill the task (assigned) to him by the director.7. Our program aims to help high-school graduates to find the best colleges for them and gain (acceptance) to the college of their choice.8. Good movies not only (entertain) us, but also help us understand a little more about life.9. He is delighted to find out that both his father and mother are (agreeable) to his studying abroad.10. We must take (sustainable) development into consideration when using the rich resources in our country.11. To do the job of the sales representative for our company, it is (desirable) that you know something about medicine as well as about the marketl Banked ClozeIn January 2011, Daniel Hernandez saved congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords' life in a mass shooting in Tucson. He kept her alive by (1) (applying) pressure to her wounds and speaking (2) (tender) words of sympathy until medical people arrived. He was (3) (hailed) as a hero by the public. Although his devotion to public service is (4) (remarkable), in his book They Call Me a Hero: A Memoir of My Youth, Hernandez insists that he is not a hero.Hernandez said that he initially resisted the idea of writing a book about his experience on that day of enormous (5) (tragedy). "I had been (6) (pushed) by a few publishers after the incident," he said. "I thought heroes should be people who make a lifetime (7) (commitment) to helping others." However, Hernandez, now a school board member, had come to realize that he would be interested in writing a book (8) (focusing) on his public service."As a young official, I've faced some big challenges, and I want young people to know that they need to face challenges and (9) (involve) themselves in their communities." When asked if he had any plan with a second book, Hernandez said his major purpose at present was to continue to serve his community and pursue his passion as a(n) (10) (advocate) for education. "But I'm not going to say no," he said.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. She held her hand above her eyes to (1) (shield) them (2) (from) the sun so that she could see more clearly the man in front of her.2. The boy studied the signs for over an hour, but still could not (make sense of) them, so he turned to his teacher for help.3. They (called on) the developed countries to commit more money to protecting the environment.4. We will continue to care for those (in need) and work to establish a society that is generous and prosperous.5. Many people (are caught up in/get caught up in) careers and raising kids so that they forget that their marriages also need to be taken good care of.6. My most favorite program is the one that deals with scientific subjects that ordinary people can (relate to) .7. Finally, I would like to (sum up) by saying that it has been a tremendous pleasure to work with you all.8. He is a person that you can always (count on) when you need help.9. Betty loves reading. (In her words/In the words of Betty) , "Reading is the most wonderful thing in the world."10. This restaurant is very popular because it has some separate, smaller rooms (reserved for) families with small children.l Translation? 英譯漢As one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia through China, Marco Polo is perhaps the most well-known foreign merchant and voyager to the Chinese people. He traveled extensively (廣泛地) with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. He remained in China for 17 of those years. His book The Travels of Marco Polo depicts his journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. From his written accounts the Westerners learned of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, printing, paper money, and silk for the first time. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries during the age of the European voyages of discovery and conquest (征服). In the centuries since his death, Marco Polo has received the recognition that failed to come his way during his lifetime. Marco Polo's story has inspired countless other adventurers to set off and see the world.作為通過中國游歷亞洲的首批歐洲人之一,馬可?波羅可能是中國人最熟知的外國商人和航海家。從1271 年到1295 年,他和他的家人游歷廣泛,遍及歐洲和亞洲。期間,他在中國留居了17 年。他的著作《馬可?波羅游記》描述了他游歷亞洲的旅程,讓歐洲人首次全面領略了包括中國、印度和日本在內的遠東地區的情況。從他的文字敘述中,西方人第一次了解到瓷器、煤炭、火藥、印刷術、紙幣以及絲綢。在15 世紀末和16 世紀歐洲發現與征服的大航海時代,馬可?波羅所記錄的大量新的地理信息得到了廣泛使用。在他去世后的這幾個世紀里,馬可?波羅獲得了他在有生之年未曾獲得的贊譽。馬可?波羅的故事鼓舞了其他無數的探險者去踏上征程,發現世界。? 漢譯英鄭和是中國歷史上最著名的航海家(maritime explorer)。公元1405 年,明朝的統治者為了穩固邊防(border defense)和開展海上貿易,派鄭和下西洋(the Western Seas)。在此后的28 年里,鄭和帶領船隊七下西洋,前后出海的人員有10 多萬人,訪問了30 多個國家和地區。船隊縱橫南亞、西亞,一直到非洲大陸。鄭和下西洋是世界航海(navigation)史上的壯舉,它展現了鄭和卓越的航海和組織才能,同時展現了明朝的國力和國威(national strength and prestige),加強了明朝和海外各國之間的關系。Zheng He was the most famous maritime explorer in Chinese history. In 1405 AD, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty sent Zheng He on a voyage to the Western Seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade by sea. In the following 28 years, Zheng He led his fleet, made seven voyages to the Western Seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and visited more than 30 countries and regions. The fleet traveled far into South Asia and West Asia, and made all the way to the continent of Africa. Zheng He's voyages to the Western Seas were a great feat in the world's navigation history. It showed Zheng He's outstanding navigation and organization talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the Ming Dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the Ming Dynasty and the overseas countries.Unit 4 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. A heavy flood caused the bridge to (collapse) ; now, no one can cross the river without boats.2. Susan has been crying a lot since her sister died a year ago; it seems that she could never (heal) from the heavy loss.3. It's sometimes considered bad manners to (lean) on the table while eating, so please be careful not to do so.4. After crying for some time, she looked at her face (reflected) in the mirror, only to find she was such a sad and plain-looking girl.5. I had to hold tightly the handrails (扶手) along the hall to keep myself from losing my balance on the (slippery) floor.6. The man phoned the police and later went to the police station to look at photos to (identify) the robbers.7. The imperial examination system, which started in the Sui Dynasty, was (abolished) in 1905.8. Many smokers choose to (ignore) the fact that smoking is harmful to health and refuse to stop smoking.9. He no longer had a(n) (aspiration) for further education because he thought the costs were too high.10. Although she often seemed quite cold and strict, her smiling eyes (betrayed) her true nature.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. Almost everybody needs someone to (lean on) in times of trouble. That's why we value friendship so much.2. The taxi driver had to (pull over) to the side of the road when a policeman began to follow him for speeding.3. The general manager (is grateful for) the generous support that has led to this successful result.4. The ditches (溝) were (filled up with) mud and garbage again after the pouring rain.5. When the match was over, the football fans (broke through) the barriers and rushed onto the football field.6. Seeing a child running across the street, the driver slammed on the brakes and (1) (brought) his car (2) (to a halt) just in time to avoid an accident.7. The key is to do your work with a certain skill and hold fast without (letting go of) your target.8. The blind old woman (held on) to the little girl's hand tightly when they crossed the street.9. I was not keen on the stage play at all, so I just (turned off) and started to exchange text messages with my friends.10. They wanted to make the popular science fiction into a film, but another studio (beat them to it) .l Sentence structure1. (和他一起站在農舍前面的是) a woman in an elegant dress.Reference: Standing alongside him in front of a farmhouse was2. (棚屋里面掛著的是) fruits and vegetables, including apples, grapes and corn.Reference: Hung inside the hut are3. The strange man came into the house. (沾滿了泥的是) his shoes.Reference: Covered with mud were Unit 5 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. The (annual) conference which I attend every year is going to be held in London in January next year.2. According to the terms of your (contract) , you must give three months' notice if you intend to leave this company.3. We were honored that so many people of (distinction) and talent were present to discuss the issues.4. The local government has been providing (substantial) support to them, without which they couldn't have been so successful.5. The secret agent promised that the information he (furnished) was obtained from reliable sources.6. Whether (amateur) or professional, American football is perhaps the most popular sport in the US. It attracts a total attendance of over 40 million and is watched by many more millions on television each year.7. Shops try to meet the DIY (do-it-yourself) fashion by offering consumers parts and hardware which they can (assemble) at home.8. I wonder how she will (react) to the news if I tell her she is not going to get a raise this year.9. It was (apparent) that the professor's lecture failed to impress the students as some of them had left before it was over.10. We all admitted that the trip was worthwhile after we saw a(n) (magnificent) palace and a fantastic museum.l Word Building1. boring2. fascinating3. amuse4. explode5. assume6. evolve7. compensate8. contribution9. element10. revolution1. bore2. fascinate3. amusing4. explosion5. assumption6. evolution7. compensation8. contribute9. elementary10. revolutionary1. He argues that the designer of this teaching plan makes a false (assumption) that all learners are at the same level.2. All the tourists were (fascinated) by the magnificent scenery along the coastline.3. In some parts of the world, the population (explosion) in the past two decades led to the lack of food and health care.4. This hospital lacked the most (elementary) facilities like X-ray machines and operating rooms.5. Workers who have been unfairly dismissed should be given (compensation) by the company.6. In the course of (evolution) , some birds have lost their power of flight and started to live on land.7. Almost all the people who have watched this movie agree that it is the most (amusing) movie because it is about a talking dog.8. I suggest that you not read this novel because it is not interesting and it would (bore) you to death.9. Skipping breakfast and eating too much before sleep will (contribute) to the problem of being overweight.10. This change is part of a(n) (revolutionary) effort to create a new and better generation of English proficiency tests.l Banked ClozeFor several centuries, cricket (板球) has been a very popular sport in England. It has been enjoyed by both professional and (1) (amateur) players. This super-popular game is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players. It can provide you with health benefits like building (2) (endurance), balance, and physical fitness. But for a team sport, cricket also places (3) (individual) players under unusual pressure because every team player is (4) (independent) of each other.Cricket might have started in early 16th-century England. Written records (5) (present) evidence of a game known as creag being played by Prince Edward at Newenden, Kent in 1301; and it is possible, (6) (despite) no hard evidence, that this was a form of cricket. By the end of the 18th century, cricket had (7) (developed) into a national sport of England. The growth of the British Empire led to cricket being played abroad and by the mid-19th century the first international (8) (contests) were held. Cricket has had a(n) (9) (remarkable) impact on popular culture in England. It has had an influence on the vocabulary of the English language, with such phrases as that's not cricket (10) (coined) to describe unfair behavior in general.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. I felt terribly sorry to learn that his sister (passed away) after having fought against cancer for three years.2. The Chinese swimmer was (left behind) at the beginning of the women's 100-meter freestyle final, but she didn't give up and finally took the lead.3. The rich man thinks that he will die in disgrace if he does not (give away) his money for the public good.4. They (had no intention of) letting him go and would like him to stay on after his present contract expires.5. (Up to) seven million students are graduating from university this year. This will undoubtedly add to the employment pressure in the job market.6. If he is determined to do something, he will do it (regardless of) what other people will say.7. The movie was a complete waste of time. I (might as well/might just as well) have stayed at home.8. The authorities promise to introduce an effective health service so that people do not need to spend too much money when they (fall ill) .9. Thousands of people were (in attendance) at yesterday's strike, which caused great confusion.10. They got to know each other in their 20s and (to this day) they are still in close touch with each other.l Translation? 英譯漢The first written records of the ancient Olympic Games date to 776 BC. The ancient Olympics were held every four years between August 6 and September 19 during a religious festival honoring Zeus (宙斯). The first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The Olympic symbol consists of five interlaced rings of equal dimensions, representing the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. The Olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the 8th Olympic Games were held in Paris. Some 3,000 athletes from 44 nations competed that year, and for the first time the Games featured a closing ceremony. The Winter Olympics debuted (問世) that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding and the biathlon. Eighty years later, when the 2004 Summer Olympics returned to Athens for the first time in more than a century, nearly 11,000 athletes from 201 countries competed, breaking the then record of participating countries.有關古代奧林匹克運動會的最早文字記載可追溯至公元前776年。古代奧運會每4年舉辦一次,在8月6日與9月19日之間的一個紀念宙斯的宗教節日期間舉行。第一屆現代奧運會于1896年在希臘雅典舉辦。奧運會的標志由五個大小相同的套環組成,代表著五大洲的聯合和來自世界各地運動員的大聚會。奧運會真正騰飛、成為一項國際體育盛會是在1924年之后,即第8屆奧運會在巴黎舉辦之后。這一年,來自44個國家約3,000名運動員同場競技,并且第一次在奧運會上增加了閉幕式這一儀式。同年,冬季奧運會首次亮相,比賽項目包括花樣滑冰、冰球、雪橇和冬季兩項運動。80年后,2004年夏季奧運會在相隔一個多世紀后再次在雅典舉辦,來自201個國家的近11,000名運動員展開競技,創下參賽國數量之最。? 漢譯英太極拳(Tai Chi)是一種武術(martial arts)項目,也是一種健身運動,在中國有著悠久的歷史。太極拳動作緩慢而柔和,適合任何年齡、性別、體型的人練習。太極拳既可防身,又能強身健體,因而深受中國人的喜愛。太極拳在發展的過程中,借鑒并吸收了中國傳統哲學、醫術、武術的合理內容(element),成為特色鮮明的一項運動。作為中國特有的一種運動形式,太極拳也越來越受到眾多外國朋友的喜愛。Tai Chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. It has a long history in China. With slow and gentle movements, Tai Chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. It can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. Therefore, it has become very popular among Chinese people. During its development, Tai Chi borrowed and absorbed desirable elements from traditional Chinese philosophy, medicine, and martial arts, and it has developed into a sport with unique features. As a unique sport in China, Tai Chi is also gaining increasing popularity among many foreign friends.Unit 5 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. The work of the sales team was absolutely (critical) to the success of the new toy company.2. The general fought many hard battles and won countless medals, but he remains (humble) .3. Our English teacher always asked us to (underline) new words and phrases in the text.4. I think it is great that you have found someone with whom you can share (mutual) understanding and love.5. They promised to make every effort to (accomplish) the task in time. I think we should trust them.6. When you go to a new country, you need to (adapt) to the new manners and customs.7. At the meeting, he (emphasized) three important elements, namely, trade, human resources, and capital investment.8. When children (overcome) difficulties on their own, they develop new skills and a strong belief in their abilities.9. A friend of mine has decided to give up his well-paid job because the position is too (demanding) and he has no time for his family.10. It takes a(n) (considerable) amount of time and energy to achieve proficiency (精通) in a foreign language.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. Don't blame the children (for) their bad manners. It's their parents who are to blame because they should have taught them to behave properly.2. This course requires students to read widely in literature, and it places emphasis (on) women's literature.3. The aim of the program is to provide students with the basic skills of the profession and an ability to adapt (to) new circumstances.4. Many young women are so keen to keep themselves (in) shape that they take the diet to extremes.5. The expenses and planning involved in travel canceled (out) the possible pleasure she would have.6. The discussions are intended to pave the way (for) official agreements between the two countries.7. This booklet gives you guidance on how to deal (with) problems in the workplace.8. Jerry loves his mother, but sometimes he feels she is a little bit too harsh (on) him.9. If you are lacking (in) confidence, ask yourself what most frightens you and find ways to overcome it.10. Online shopping has been growing (at) an increasing rate these years.l Sentence structure1. The ticket is a good deal, but the trip is (并不是沒有問題的).Reference: not without problems2. They knew this was (并非沒有風險), but they encouraged us to carry out the plan.Reference: not without risk3. Based on the evidence of the murder case, the policeman's concerns are (并非沒有依據).Reference: not without foundation Unit 6 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. Studies (indicate) that children who often take part in cooperative programs benefit a lot more than other children.2. They are such a(n) (conventional) family — they must have been shocked when their son dyed (染) his hair pink.3. Testing students by examinations has long been regarded as a reliable way to (assess) students' ability.4. Many power stations have been modernized to give off less pollution, or they were moved further away from the living areas in order to (decrease) the damage.5. Unemployment has come down slightly, but this does not (alter) the fact that it is still a major problem.6. Mr. Smith is not doing well; the doctor told us that several colds (has undermined) his health.7. The best way to deal with problems at home is to talk things out calmly and honestly and try to reach a(n) (compromise) .8. Darwin's theory of evolution remains (controversial) partly because it challenges the religious belief that God created man.9. It was reported the president had (resolved) to fight if war was necessary, even if it meant destroying his chances of re-election.10. I had to (abandon) one of my email accounts as it was filled with junk mail.l Word Building1. represent2. form3. occupation4. solve5. persuade6. transmit7. productive8. original9. flexibility10. secure11. simple12. prosperous1. representation2. formation3. occupy4. solution5. persuasion6. transmission7. productivity8. originality9. flexible10. security11. simplicity12. prosperity1. You can often come up with a(n) (solution) to a problem by looking at it from a different angle or thinking about it in another way.2. These days we are so accustomed to instant communication that it is hard to imagine the excitement when cables (電纜) were used for the (transmission) of telegraph messages in the19th century.3. A country's future (prosperity) depends, to a degree, upon the quality of education of its people.4. I understood that my primary goal had to be the (formation) of a new bond between the students and me.5. Some schools offer teachers (flexible) working hours, recognizing their need to balance work and private life.6. He was (occupied) with his business matters and didn't have time to think about a holiday.7. When he was young, he used to copy the style of a famous artist, so there was little (originality) in his early works.8. Due to increased (productivity) , the past decade saw great economic growth in China.9. For the purpose of (simplicity) , we labeled each sample with a number.10. My husband did not like traveling, so it took me a great deal of (persuasion) to make him go on a trip to Africa with me.11. In many cultures, eggs are an obvious symbol of new life, and the newborn chicks are a lovely (representation) of new growth.12. Every time you respond to your baby's cries with comfort and love, you're showing to him that his world is safe. This helps him develop a strong sense of (security) .l Banked ClozeNowadays college education cost is rising sharply. More and more college students have to work in order to (1) (generate) income to support themselves. But how can you prevent working from (2) (interfering)with your study?Firstly, plan your class and work (3) (schedules) as far ahead as possible. Arrange your classes in a way so that you have one or two days for work.Secondly, use time well instead of (4) (burning) the midnight oil. Studying late until midnight may make you tired and take a(n) (5) (consistent) toll on your health. Use those 10 minutes waiting for the bus to read a few more pages. If your job has a lot of downtime (自由支配時間), use the (6) (opportunity) to do school assignments. Never try to cut corners by copying assignments from other students.Thirdly, set a goal for your academic performance. You'll probably have to (7) (decrease) your work hours, or even, if possible and necessary, (8) (withdraw) from the workforce to be successful in study. After all, it is not a good idea to risk (9) (compromising) your student career with part-time jobs.Fourthly, inform all your professors, teaching assistants and employers about your situation so that they can be (10) (flexible) as well. Winning their support is the best way to keep them on your side.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. The new government has committed to (cutting back on) emissions of greenhouse gases.2. My parents do not object to my taking part-time jobs, but they remind me not to let them (interfere with) my school work.3. Anger, worry, disappointment, these negative emotions (take a toll on) your heart, brain and body.4. If a person adopts an unhealthy lifestyle, he will surely be (at risk of) developing diseases.5. Most people were ready to give up on him when he (dropped out) of school, but later he returned and earned his degree.6. Drinking too much can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure, which (in turn) can lead to heart attack or stroke.7. Low-cost airlines are emerging all over Asia; this will (contribute to) the development of the world's air-travel market as a whole.8. When you move to a new country, you may find the food there strange and you may miss the familiar smells of the food you (are accustomed to) in your own country.9. Although he kept trying and failing, I always (held on to) the belief that he would succeed one day.10. The tax only affects people with an annual income over $200,000 — (in other words) , it will only affect the very rich.l Translation? 英譯漢Gap year (間隔年) refers to a period of time —not necessarily a year — in which students take time off and do something other than schooling, such as travel or work. The year out is most commonly taken after high school and before going to university. During this time, a student might travel, engage in volunteer work or undertake (承擔) a working holiday abroad. A new trend is to participate in international education programs that combine language study, home stays, cultural exchange, community service, and independent study. The practice of taking a year out developed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. It has grown very popular among students in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In the United States, however, the practice of taking a year off remains the exception (例外). But in recent years, taking a year out has become slightly more common for Americans. Some 40,000 American students participated in 2013 in gap year programs, an increase of almost 20% since 2006. Universities such as Princeton University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology have formal policies allowing students to defer (延期) admission.間隔年指的是學生休假不去上學而去旅游或工作等的一段時間,但不一定是一年。間隔年通常選在高中畢業和進入大學之前的一段時間。在這段時間里,學生可以旅游、參加志愿者工作或者在國外邊打工邊度假。一種新潮流是參加集語言學習、住家、文化交流、社區服務和自主學習于一體的國際教育活動。間隔年的做法于20世紀60年代興起于英國。它在英國、澳大利亞、新西蘭和加拿大已經變得非常流行。但是在美國,間隔年的做法仍然只是個別現象。不過近年來,間隔年對美國人來說變得稍微普遍起來。2013年有大約四萬美國學生參加了間隔年活動,比2006年增加了近20%。普林斯頓大學、哈佛大學、麻省理工學院等大學都有明文規定允許學生延遲入學。? 漢譯英改革開放以來,中國的教育事業得到了快速發展,取得了引人矚目的成就。中國政府把教育擺在優先發展的地位,堅持科教興國(revitalize the country),全面提倡素質教育 (quality-oriented education)。同時,積極推進教育公平,保障人人有受教育的機會。中國的教育成就反映在兩個不同的層面:一個是全面普及了九年義務教育(nine-year compulsory education),另一個是實現了高等教育大眾化(mass higher education)。教育的發展為中國的經濟發展和社會進步作出了重大貢獻。近年來,為適應社會、經濟發展的需要,中國政府不斷加快培養各領域的急需人才。Since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, China's education has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achievements. The Chinese government gives top priority to the development of education, persists in revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. Meanwhile, it actively promotes equality in education to guarantee everyone access to education. China's achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: One is the popularization of the nine-year compulsory education; the other is the realization of mass higher education. The development of education has made significant contributions to China's economic development and social progress. In recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and economic development, the Chinese government has sped up the training of qualified personnel urgently needed in various fields.Unit 6 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. The program aims to meet the needs of different students. It provides courses for both beginners and (advanced) students.2. The shock was (tremendous) when she was found out to have a tumor, and even more so when doctors suggested that it was life-threatening.3. He denies the university's (claim) that he cheated in two tests through having knowledge of the questions in advance.4. You'd have to (endure) the unbearable pain while the doctors are on their way to your help.5. To (relieve) stress, she turned to painting, an activity she has loved since childhood.6. All roadwork during rush hours should be stopped to (ensure) the smooth flow of traffic.7. In selecting applicants for jobs, they give preference to those who have worked in the (relevant) field for no less than two years.8. Having studied your report carefully, I am (convinced) that your solution is much better than mine.9. When giving a lecture, Frank often prepared some pictures to (illustrate) how a situation mentioned in the text took place.10. A report released last week by the United Nations shows that the unemployment rate in this country has (soared) from about 3% to 6.5%.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. (In spite of) the depressing economic forecasts, business people are all confident about the future.2. More than 200 fans were waiting at the airport late in the evening in the hope that they would (catch a glimpse of /get a glimpse of /have a glimpse of) their favorite pop singer.3. In our country, nurses in hospitals are mostly female while male nurses (are in the minority/are in a minority) .4. Many people like shopping online because it (1) (relieves) them (2) (of) the trouble of driving to the shops and finding parking places.5. Advertising isn't just (a matter of) supplying information to consumers, but a business that seeks to use the most advanced techniques to influence society.6. (As for) those who are attending university at an older age, to study hard will be their priority rather than anything else.7. She (is envious of) her sister's beauty all the time, so it is hard for the sisters to get along.8. When I (look back) , I see how easy, comfortable, and pleasant my life was, and I took it all for granted!l Sentence structure1. (考慮到你沒有得到多少幫助), I think you did very well in the research.Reference: Given that you had very little help2. (考慮到學生們在課堂上學過如何做那項實驗), the teacher allowed them to do it by themselves in the lab.Reference: Given that students had learned how to do the experiment in class3. Although the statistics show the number of teenagers using tobacco has started to decline, experts say the number is still disturbing (鑒于近90%的成年人吸煙者從18歲或18歲以前就開始吸煙了).Reference: given that nearly 90% of adult smokers began smoking at or before the age of 18 Unit 7 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. If you promise you won't (reveal) my name, I will tell you the true story.2. Are you (implying) that I am the one to blame? I didn't do anything wrong!3. While advertisements do not necessarily present (accurate) information, they do make people aware of the availability of products that could improve their lives.4. He (exaggerated) the dangers of the trip to the mountain in order to frighten the children out of going.5. You have to (eliminate) all the mistakes from the essay before you hand it in.6. The new policy was expected to (facilitate) the development of trade between the two cities.7. She was (frustrated) by her failure in applying for the post she had long dreamed of.8. In most cultures it is not (appropriate) for one to wear a red dress or suit at a funeral.9. He suddenly became (conscious) that he was the only person who wasn't dressed formally at the reception.10. To (launch) this new product into the European market, the company gave away 10,000 free samples to the local consumers to try.l Word Building1. continue2. emotional3. industry4. part5. correspond6. innocence7. present8. occur9. intelligent10. worth11. unite12. inquiry1. continual2. emotion3. industrial4. partial5. correspondence6. innocent7. presence8. occurrence9. intelligence10. worthy11. unity12. inquire1. He had kept up (correspondence) with his friends for many years, but all of a sudden, he stopped writing to them.2. The (continual) tick of the clock got on my nerves, and I found it hard to fall asleep.3. Your responsibility for the failure of the plan is only (partial) . Your partner should also take responsibility.4. She remained calm and cool in appearance, but she gave away her (emotion) by smoking one cigarette after another.5. Newspapers should record important (occurrences) of the day, but this significant incident was missed by many newspapers on that day.6. The court made a huge mistake in sending a(n) (innocent) man to jail; he was put into prison for 10 years for doing nothing wrong.7. I think the scientist is (worthy) of the high praise that has been given to him.8. Some (industrial) chemicals and food additives (添加劑) are known to increase cancer risk.9. He was not as self-confident as before in the (presence) of so many competitors. On the contrary, he felt very nervous.10. He got lost on the street, and had to (inquire) about how to get to the department store.11. It is our consistent policy that we will achieve (unity) through peaceful means, not by using arms.12. There are two factors which determine an individual's (intelligence) : the brain that a person is born with, and the environment in which he is brought up.l Banked ClozePlagiarizing, copying a peer's test answers, and buying essays online are all ways in which college students cheat. According to a survey, nearly 80% of the students interviewed (1) (admitted) cheating at some point during their educational (2) (career). The consequences are severe (嚴重的), ranging from a failing grade to being (3) (expelled) from college. But why do students cheat? In college, the (4) (pressure) to do well is very high. Students know that without (5) (satisfactory) grades, their potential for success at school would be limited, so they sometimes copy their peers' answers in the exam. Besides, with today's technology, there is more information (6) (available) online than ever before. Students don't have to (7) (browse) the Internet long to find essays for sale. These are just some of the reasons why college students might cheat. Although colleges do everything they can to (8) (prevent) cheating, it still goes on. And cheating becomes more (9) (extensive) in some schools. But students should think about the consequences they will (10) (confront). They should stop and think about how happy and proud they will be when they earn a good grade in an honest way.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. The activities of famous people always attract people's attention, (not to mention) their marriages and divorces.2. You are free to use the resources in the library or on the Internet, but you must (turn in) a paper written in your own words.3. Some taxis do not have a meter (計程表). Then it's easy for some dishonest taxi drivers to (rip off) their passengers.4. All the employees must work hard to (cope with) the present financial difficulties in order to triumph over them in a short period of time.5. She has already (launched a campaign) for a charity that helps people suffering from unusual diseases.6. You really believe that this medicine can cure all diseases? (If this is the case/If that is the case) , we don't need doctors or hospitals any more.7. In my opinion, educational reforms should not (be confined to) big cities alone, where conditions are already much more advanced than in the countryside.8. Lecturers and journalists have been arguing over a serious question: Will this area (descend into) chaos if another major strike takes place?l Translation? 英譯漢The belief in the freedom of the individual is probably the most basic and most strongly held of all American beliefs. The most important thing to understand Americans is probably their devotion (深愛) to "individualism". They have been trained since very early in their lives to consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own situations in life and their own destiny. Americans view themselves as highly individualistic in their thoughts and actions. They resist being thought of as representatives of any homogeneous (由同類組成的) group. When they do join groups, they believe they are special, just a little different from other members of the same group. Closely associated with the value they place on individualism is the importance Americans assign privacy. Americans assume people "need some time to themselves" or "some time alone" to think about things or recover their spent psychological energy. Americans have great difficulty understanding foreigners who always want to be with another person and who dislike being alone.在所有美國人的信念中,最基本、最強烈的信念可能就是崇尚個人自由。要理解美國人,最重要的也許就是了解他們對"個人主義"的熱愛。生活中他們很早就開始受到教育,把自己看成獨立的個體,對人生中自己的處境以及自己的前途命運負責。美國人認為自己的思想和行為高度個性化。他們不愿被視為任何同質群體的代表。如果確實加入了群體,他們也認為自己有特別之處,與同一個群體中的其他成員有著些許的差別。與美國人對個人主義賦予的價值緊密相關的是他們對個人隱私的重視。美國人認為,人"需要有自己的時間"或者"有時間獨處",用來思考事情,或者恢復他們所消耗的心理能量。美國人很難理解那些總想與人結伴、不愛獨處的外國人。? 漢譯英為人誠信,以和為貴是中華民族的傳統美德。"和"的思想體現在很多方面。在處理人與人的關系上,中國傳統思想主張"和為貴"以及"家和萬事興",從而創造一個和諧的社會環境。在人與自然的關系上,人類應當學會認識自然,尊重自然,保護自然。人與人、人與社會、人與自然都需要"和諧"。如今,和諧發展依然是我們的治國之本和管理人才之道。隨著我國社會經濟和文化的發展,"和"的思想更加深入人心。中國正在向構建社會主義和諧社會的目標邁進。Integrity and harmony are traditional Chinese virtues. "Harmony" is demonstrated in various aspects. In regard to interpersonal relations, traditional Chinese thoughts hold that "Harmony is most precious" and "A family that lives in harmony will prosper". A harmonious social environment can be created based on these principles. As for relations between human beings and nature, people should learn to understand, respect and protect nature. Harmony is essential to interpersonal relations, relations between human beings and society, as well as between human beings and nature. Nowadays, harmonious development is still the way of running the country and managing talented personnel. With the development of China's society, economy and culture, the idea of "harmony" goes even deeper into people's hearts. China is on its way toward the goal of building a harmonious socialist society.Unit 7 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. A big problem (encountered) by most freshmen is that they feel sick about being away from home.2. Jane is a talented language learner. She could (switch) easily from French to English.3. As a customer service manager, you need to get used to listening to (complaints) from customers.4. Many people kindly (volunteered) to help us build a shelter for the homeless.5. Students who do badly in school tests tend to (perceive) themselves to be failures.6. Some very old traditions still (prevail) in the mountain villages due to lack of communication with the outside world.7. These young students have just graduated from college and they are (ignorant) of the realities of the modern commercial (商業的) world.8. Due to the government's (prompt) response to the crisis, the country's economy has not suffered great losses.9. Parents put a lot of pressure on their children to get good grades. Some parents promise to give rewards for good grades and (threaten) to punish for bad ones.10. The people who were surveyed in the study had been chosen (randomly) so that the result would be convincing.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. I am afraid another program error has (cropped up) , so the report won't be ready until tomorrow.2. It's impolite for us to (cut in line) and we should keep order in public places.3. The board of directors (pointed to) falling productivity to justify their decision to employ overseas experts.4. The national income figures (1) (play an) important (2) (role in) the planning of both short- and long-term government policies.5. We need to (go beyond) the misleading evidence to recognize the nature of this accident.6. The famous actress did not (show up) at the party, which was very disappointing to her fans.7. After the robbery the police immediately (gave chase) to the suspect. And it didn't take long to arrest the robber.8. Why don't you (mind your own business) ? Let's not interfere with each other.9. You have to (live with) the fact that you are no longer as strong as you were.10. I'll (1) (pass) these clothes (2) (on to) my little niece when my boys have outgrown them.l Sentence structure1. I think any marriage can fail or succeed, (無論夫妻雙方是否是同一個種族).Reference: whether the couple are of the same race or not.2. When reading the newspaper one often skims an article before deciding (是否更仔細地閱讀該文章).Reference: whether or not to read it more carefully.3. (不論這項發明能否帶來商業上的成功), being environment-friendly is a factor to be taken into account.Reference: Whether the invention can lead to commercial success or not. Unit 8 – Section A l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. This kind of dance is basically a(n) (sequence) of steps that you repeat over and over again.2. The man breathed a sigh of (relief) when he was told that everything had arrived in good condition.3. The troops (retreated) to the nearby hills when they realized that they could not win.4. He could not (restrain) himself any longer from losing his temper when he learned that his teenage son had skipped class again.5. It hasn't rained for two months, and this will (inevitably) lead to the decline in rice production.6. I think the (tendency) to give children too many toys and clothes is quite common in American families.7. The car crash wasn't an accident; it was a(n) (deliberate) attempt to kill the driver.8. When our employees are encouraged to participate in the decision-making (process) , they will be much more willing to carry out the decisions.9. The impact of computer game violence may be (evident) immediately in the child's behavior or may be shown years later.10. As the woman noticed that her car's brakes were failing, and she could not keep from crashing into the wall, her entire body became (rigid) with fear.l Word Building1. present2. cost3. dead4. approximately5. name6. scarcely7. barely8. editor9. generate10. survivor1. presently2. costly3. deadly4. approximate5. namely6. scarce7. bare8. edit9. generator10. survive1. I'm not sure of the exact number, but the (approximate) cost of this type of computer ranges from around $800 to $1000.2. Oil transportation is dangerous to wildlife. Oil spills, possible when transporting oil by boat, are extremely (deadly) to sea life.3. Please wait for a while; the manager is (presently) discussing the matter with the clients.4. A college education can be very (costly) in the United States. Many students have to borrow money to help pay for college.5. The ship's (generator) broke down, and the pumps had to be operated by hand without the help of electricity.6. At the meeting, a(n) (bare) majority, 52 percent, agreed to build a highway through the forest, but nearly 40 percent were strongly against the idea.7. As the number of people on earth increases, it becomes more difficult for the population to (survive) on the resources of the land.8. Viewing and (editing) documents on a computer screen can be much quicker than working on paper.9. There are three colors in the British flag, (namely) red, white and blue.10. In this country, wood was (scarce) , so most houses were built of dried mud, with a roof supported by tree trunks.l Banked ClozeThere was a time when Whitney didn't have a lot of friends. All through high school, she just slipped in and out of "light" friendships where she didn't find a lot of comfort or (1) (companionship). When it was time for her to go to college, Whitney was nervous and (2) (scared) at the idea that she might have to go without friends. So, she was (3) (determined) to make a change. The first week of classes, something happened that (4) (transformed) Whitney's life forever. In her English class, when asked to share their goals for the class, most of the students said their goal was to get a good grade, or pass the class. Whitney (5) (uttered) something entirely different: Her goal was to make just one good friend. To her (6) (relief), while most of the students sat in silence, one student came to Whitney and held out his hand and introduced himself. He asked if she would be his friend. The whole room was silent - all eyes (7) (focused) on Whitney and the hand held out just in front of her. She smiled and (8) (stretched) her hand out to take his and a friendship was formed. It was a friendship that lasted through college. It was a friendship from which a romance was (9) (nurtured). It was a friendship that brought two people together in marriage and (10) (steered) them through many good and bad times.l Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. The findings show (1) (in) general (2) (terms) that the same problem begins sooner in the country than in towns.2. We dashed to the bus station and barely got on the bus when it (pulled away) .3. Somewhat (1) (to) my (2) (relief) , the police has finally decided to eliminate my brother from their list of suspects.4. A child may (be born with) serious handicaps or developmental problems which require extended periods of care.5. Samuel had been seen as a problem student. However, after he saved the life of the little girl, people began to look at him (in a new light) .6. Arriving in London (on a mission) to stop the war, he visited the Prime Minister to seek help.7. (In comparison) with the other applicants, the last girl we interviewed was much more skilled and intelligent.8. I had forgotten my mother's birthday. So the next day I bought her a bundle of flowers to (make up for) it.9. The movie was over and the crowds (spilled out) into the street.10. (At the time) , the company was fighting to survive and was forced to lay off engineers as it cut back on costs.l Translation? 英譯漢As the world's only truly universal global organization, the United Nations (UN) has become the foremost forum to address issues that transcend (超越) national boundaries and cannot be resolved by any one country acting alone. The initial goals of the UN are safeguarding (保護) peace, protecting human rights, establishing the framework for international justice and promoting economic and social progress. In recent years, the UN has been faced with new challenges, such as climate change, international terrorism and AIDS. While conflict resolution and peacekeeping continue to be among its primary efforts, the UN, along with its specialized agencies, is also engaged in a wide range of activities to improve people's lives around the world — from disaster relief, through education and advancement of women, to peaceful uses of atomic energy. The UN and its specialized agencies have helped the world become a more hospitable (熱情友好的) and livable place and brought great benefits to people around the world.作為世界上唯一一個真正具有普遍性的世界組織,聯合國已經成為處理超越國界、而且任何一個國家都無法獨立解決的問題的首要論壇。聯合國最初的宗旨是維護和平、保護人權、建立國際公平正義的框架以及促進經濟和社會進步。近年來,聯合國又面臨著新的挑戰,諸如氣候變化、國際恐怖主義和艾滋病等?,F在,解決爭端及維護和平仍然是聯合國最主要的任務。除此之外,聯合國及其專門機構還致力于各種旨在改進世界人民生活的活動,從賑災到教育和婦女進步,再到原子能的和平使用。聯合國及其專門機構推動世界成為一個更加友好、更加宜居的地方,為全世界人民帶來了福祉。? 漢譯英新中國成立后,中國堅持(persist in)獨立自主的和平外交政策,在外交領域取得了巨大成就。截至2011年,中國已與172個國家建立了外交關系(diplomatic relations)。近年來,隨著中國綜合國力的提升(enhancement),中國在國際事務中的作用越來越重要,中國的國際地位得到進一步提升。在地區性事務中,中國積極推動各種區域合作,為維護地區和平、促進地區發展作出了重要貢獻。中國外交(diplomacy)將高舉"和平、發展、合作、共贏"的旗幟(banner),在和平共處五項原則的基礎上,通過全面發展同各國的友好合作,為建設持久和平、共同繁榮的和諧世界作出不懈的努力(make unremitting efforts)。Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China has persisted in the independent foreign policy of peace, and made tremendous progress in foreign affairs. By 2011, China had established diplomatic relations with 172 countries. Over recent years, with the enhancement of its comprehensive national strength, China has been playing an increasingly important role in international affairs, and China's international status has been further enhanced. In regional affairs, China actively promotes all kinds of regional cooperation. It has made important contributions in maintaining regional peace and promoting regional development. China's diplomacy will hold high the banner of "peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit". On the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and through all-round and friendly cooperation with various countries, China will make unremitting efforts to build a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.Unit 8 – Section B l Language Focus – Words in Use 1. Nearly one-third of the people we interviewed think people from different cultures shouldn't get married, claiming that they cannot be (compatible) .2. Telecommunications technologies have been (integrated) into everyday life so deeply that modern society could not function without them.3. For a long time the US was regarded as a melting pot. This meant that all the (diverse) elements would be melted down into 100% American.4. Out-of-town tourists (constitute) about a third of the amazing annual figure of six million visitors.5. The discovery of the new drug is of great (significance) for people suffering from heart problems.6. Having expensive equipment doesn't actually (guarantee) that you can play golf, and in order to play it well, you might have to take a few lessons.7. Introducing a new product into the market is a highly (complicated) business, which calls for careful planning.8. Many young women are so (keen) on keeping themselves in shape that they take dieting to extremes.9. This organization's aim is to (enhance) the quality of life and employment opportunities of people with disabilities.10. I would like to thank those organizations that have chosen to (extend) their help to sufferers from AIDS.Answerl Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. Local farmers regard the black soils as a "gift from the past" because they are naturally fertile and have the ability to support (a range of) crops.2. I spent many nights pacing (back and forth) in the library, trying to define a topic for my essay and choose my arguments.3. As a famous actress, Caroline is always surrounded by a loving audience and (showered with) gifts from them.4. In his speech, he expressed his (debt of gratitude/debt of thanks) to all the people who had supported his work.5. We will do our best to provide you with good services, and I hope you will (be at home/feel at home) when you stay in our hotel.6. A new variety of English has (come into being) as more and more foreign speakers of the language are using it.7. Being able to determine the main idea of a passage is one of the most useful skills you can (apply to) any kind of reading.8. (A lack of) support from the public has led many public school teachers to leave the profession.l Sentence structure1. (讓我感到十分吃驚的是), she had changed so much that I could hardly recognize her.Reference: Much to my surprise2. (讓總經理感到高興的是), quite a number of business partners showed interest in this new project.Reference: To the general manager's delight3. (讓我表妹感到很失望的是), no one in the room found her joke amusing.Reference: Much to my cousin's disappointment
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